Greenhouses are structures with special qualities for plant development and production, where production is ensured all year round in optimum conditions and earliness is aimed.
The main factors of plant growth in greenhouse structures; light, temperature, relative humidity and irrigation. Light, the visible portion of total solar radiation, is one of the main growth factors for plants grown in greenhouses. For this reason, high light transmittance covers are used in greenhouse design.
Thus, sufficient light reaches the plants in the seasons when the solar radiation is not sufficient.
Shading is required during periods of high solar radiation in greenhouses where there are plants with special needs for cultivation and in regions with high solar radiation.
Heating and cooling are necessary in order to provide the optimum value in the greenhouse. Heat losses from greenhouse cover materials should be as low as possible.
Greenhouse cover materials should also have high solar radiation permeability, with the lowest heating requirement during cold periods. If the indoor temperature is higher than the optimum value, the excess heat in the greenhouse should be removed by ventilation and artificial cooling applications. In a properly designed greenhouse, the necessary climatic conditions are provided for plant growth and production all year round. Important climatic factors are maintained at a value as close as possible to the optimal value.
Therefore, the following factors are important in greenhouse design:
- Light transmittance should be high.
- Efficient Heat consumption is realized.
- Ventilation efficiency should be high.
- Its structural strength should be strong.
- Mechanical behavior should be good.
- It should be designed to have low design and operating costs
The main design criteria for greenhouses can be summarized as follows:
- Climatic conditions (1 Temperature, 2) Total solar radiation, 3) Wind speed and 4) Precipitation characteristics )
- General structural design,
- Load characteristics,
- Construction materials suitable for the region
- Appropriate plant selection