Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture) Plant Cultivation Types

Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture) Plant Cultivation Types

Hydroponic Farming Plant Growing Guide
Today, soilless agriculture, namely Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture) models are applied all over the world. In the Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture) model, crops receive nutrients not through soil, but through water and air. You can find the details of this method, which is especially welcomed by many farmers, in our article.

What is Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture)?
The word hipodornik means "working water" or "laboring water". It would not be wrong to describe Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture) as water or air agriculture.

Hipodornik Agriculture aims to feed the crops through air and water, not soil. These crops get the necessary nutrients from the fertilizers in the liquids. The Hipodornic Farming method is an unusual method. It can be applied in open areas as well as in closed areas. Soilless Agriculture is applied with many different methods. It is a very advantageous agricultural model in terms of being an agricultural model that can be applied especially in narrow areas. If resources are used sparingly, it saves labor and time, while at the same time it provides the farmer to have control over production. It is a very healthy method, especially since the cost is less and the chemical products used are less.

In the Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture) model, the cultivation area: perlite, cockpit, rock wool or sand can be used. The main task of these substances is to maintain the position of the plant by transmitting nutrients and oxygen to the plant root.

Nutrient solutions are obtained by adding nutrients to the water used here. This prepared water is injected into the root of the plant with the help of water pumps. While nutritive solutions are conveyed by water pumps, oxygen is transmitted to the root of the plant with the help of air pumps. In this way, the plant receives nutrients on time and as needed.

This is the general mode of operation of hipodornic farming. Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture) is generally preferred in closed areas such as greenhouses. The reason for this is to keep production under control and to observe seasonal factors.

1-The Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydroponics Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture)
In the hydroponic farming model, you save both your time and your pocket by keeping the production under your own control without the need for factors such as fertilization and spraying. So what are the advantages and disadvantages of Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture)? Let's take a look at them together: 

Advantages of Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture);
* According to soil agriculture, saving on area, and extra product is obtained from the unit area.
* Plants grown in Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture) grow more than plants grown in normal soil and classical method. Since the plant will grow in a short time, the harvest time will be shortened and more products will be obtained from the unit area.
* In the Hydroponic Agriculture model, since the plants will meet with the nutrients directly, the plant will not consume energy and will use all its energy for fruit and flower development. In the classical farming method, the plant will spend energy to find nutrients. Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture) method, on the other hand, puts an end to excessive energy consumption. At the same time, as the control will be in the hands of the farmer in Hipodornic Agriculture, factors such as light and temperature that the plant needs will be supplied on time. Thus, the plants will enter a rapid growth process.
* Plants will be prevented from experiencing water stress by meeting their nutritional needs in a controlled manner.
* Today, the amount of water used in agricultural areas is quite high. A large part of the water in our country goes to the water used in agriculture. Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture) will be a very advantageous option in order to prevent water problems in our country. The fact that the Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture) method is based on water does not mean more water use. The amount of water used in Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture) is only 10% of the water used in soil agriculture. Thus, more efficiency is obtained by recycling water.
* Since fertile soils are not required for cultivation in Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture), unproductive soils are evaluated.
Since the need for soil will decrease, production will be possible in places where climatic conditions are not suitable. Thus, the plants grown in the soil will be less affected by weeds and harmful substances and will grow in a healthy way and more productive products will be obtained.
* High yield and production is obtained in Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture).
* Having full control of the grower and meeting the factors needed by the plant on time and instantly will make the plant more productive. In this way, the plant will grow in a healthier way by obtaining the nutrients it needs.
* It will be easier to determine the PH of the nutritional values ​​in the products in Hipodornic Agriculture. Thus, the controlled delivery of the elements in the nutrients to the plant will provide nutrient and element balance. In this way, the quality of the products grown will be better and it will provide a good market opportunity for the farmer. By ensuring continuity in production, there will be developments in the food industry and there will be no delays.
* Disadvantages of Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture);
* In terms of installation costs, the cost is higher than other systems.
* Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture) requires some machinery as it is done in a controlled manner. This requires a capital to start production. Timing machines, pumps, lights, filters are all costs. Especially at this point, the lack of someone can affect production. The list should be carefully made and thought through.
* The farmer must have sufficient technical knowledge.
* The scale and size of the production will be a cost, as well as gaining experience in this regard is a cost. Especially since this experience takes time, it will affect the start of production, which will be a disadvantage.
* The system must be constantly monitored.
* In order for the plants to survive, the system must be constantly monitored. A minor systemic failure cannot provide continuity and continuity in production.
* The fact that some products are not suitable for Hypodreonic Agriculture brings along the discussions of naturalness.
* In particular, the fact that some tuber plants are not suitable for soilless agriculture brings about naturalness debates among the people. This creates disadvantages in terms of the market. 

2-What are the Types of Hydroponic Agriculture (Soilless Agriculture)?
There are many types of Hydroponic Agriculture. These types are divided into active and passive systems. In active systems, nutrients are delivered to the root of the plant by means of a pump, while in passive systems, only the root of the plant is grown.

Now we will examine the types of Hydroponic System together;

Roving System
The roving system is evaluated within the passive systems. The wick system is the simplest Hydroponic Farming system. These wicks deliver nutrients to plant roots without the need for any support. Especially for those who are new to Hydroponic Agriculture, it is a very easy and cost-effective method.

hidrofonik yetiştiricilikte fitil sistemi1

Deep Water Culture
In the Deep Water culture system, while the roots are saturated with a nutrient solution, at the same time, the roots are prevented from suffocating with the help of oxygen. Deep Water Culture is more suitable for environments where the temperature is high during the day and colder at night. Thanks to the buffering capacity brought by the high volume of water, the cooling of the water slows down and less energy is consumed.

Nutrient Film Technique
In the Nutrient Film Technique, the plants are located in a gutter and the house is the system in which there is a circulating water flow. Since it has a slight slope, the solutions to feed the plants are flowed on this slope. Since most of the roots will be located outside of the water, the roots can easily breathe and the problems that may occur in the roots are reduced. Exposed roots should also be kept moist and protected from light.
More about this source textSource text required for additional translation information
Send feedback
Side panels

Besin Filmi Tekniği NFT

Flood and Drain (Flood and Drain System)
In this system, the liquids needed by the plant are delivered to the plant roots with the help of a pump. Afterwards, the remaining water and nutrients are transferred to the reservoir and discharged. This is where the name of the system comes from. With the help of the timer, nutrients are delivered to the roots in a timely manner. In order for the system to work properly, there must first be a sufficient amount of oxygen. The conveying pipe should also be wider than the drain pipe. This ensures continuity and continuity.

Hidrofonik Yetiştiricilikte Su Basma ve Tahliye Sistemi

Drip Systems
The dripping system is used in many fields today. It is among the Active Hydroponic Systems. Nutrients are delivered to the plant roots with the help of a timer. Nutrients in the growing area are also transferred back to the reservoir with the help of evacuation.

damla sulama sistemi

It is the system in which plant roots are grown by using water vapor in Hydroponic Agriculture systems. This system is the most complex system. The nutrients are evaporated and transmitted to the food roots.

How should the environment where the plant grows in hydroponic agriculture?

In the hydroponic system, the environment in which you will grow the plant is very important.

The features that you should pay attention to when choosing this environment are as follows;

It should provide drainage and adequate ventilation. It should be able to hold moisture and oxygen.
* It should be light enough to work and carry.
* It should be low cost.
* It should be environmentally friendly and organic.
* Must be reusable.
* PH ratio should be neutralhidrofonik yetiştiricilikte aerofonik sistem

3-What are the Breeding Environments?
There is a wide variety of growing mediums available on the market. These are media such as paddy pool, volcanic tuff, coconut fiber, sand, pine sawdust, vermiculite, peat, rock wool. You can grow a variety of Hydroponic crops in these environments.

Coconut shell (Cocopeat)
The coconut shell is known as the cocopeat. This material is formed by the combination of coconut shells.

Advantages Disadvantages
Ø It retains water and air. Ø Drainage is not good.
Ø It is an organic product. Ø It is difficult to tighten when used for a long time.
Ø It can be reused.
Ø It is environmentally friendly.

Perlite is a glassy and volcanic rock type. It is used in many fields in agriculture. It is preferred for aeration of the soil. It can also be used without soil in hydroponic agriculture.

Advantages Disadvantages
Ø It is light. Ø It may form dust.
Ø It holds oxygen well. Ø Since it is light, it may not be used in some systems.
Ø It can be reused.

Rock wool
It is produced by melting the minerals obtained from volcanic rocks and turning them into fibers. It is used in recirculating systems in hydroponic agriculture.

Advantages Disadvantages
Ø It holds oxygen very well. Ø It is not environmentally friendly.
Ø It holds water very well. Ø Since it has a particulate structure, it may form dust.
Ø There are different types of sizes. Ø It is not pH neutral.

Expanded Clay
Clay balls, which are expanded and heated in small packages, are turned into round metal after the process is finished.

Advantages Disadvantages
Ø It holds oxygen very well. Ø It is heavy material.
Ø It can be reused. Ø Water retention rate is low.

Grow Stone (Growstones)
It is a porous piece of rock. It is made from recycled glass.

Advantages Disadvantages
Ø Moisture retention rate is high. Ø Its sticky structure damages the plant.
Ø It is a light material. Ø It is difficult to clean.

It is one of the mineral species that expands with the effect of heat. Since its drainage rate is low, it can be used together with perlite.

Advantages Disadvantages
Ø It holds water very well. Ø Expensive product.
Ø It is light. Ø Can hold much water.

4-How is Fertilization in Hydroponics Agriculture?
Although the ways and systems of the nutrients that plants need are different, many plants need these substances.

What Nutrients Do Plants Need to Grow and Develop?

Water = Water gives moisture to plants.
Oxygen = Essential for respiration.
Light = Provides the energy needed to produce food. Various artificial lights and natural light from the sun are used.
Carbon dioxide = One of the basic requirements for respiration.
Nutrients = Substances used to help plants grow.
Nutrients are divided into macronutrients and micronutrients.

Macro nutrients are the nutrients that plants need most. Micronutrients, on the other hand, are supportive of macronutrients.

Macro nutrients; sulfur, nitrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium. Among them, the most important nutrients are; nitrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus.
Micronutrients are; boron, manganese, zinc and iron.
Macro and micro nutrients are important for adequate nutrition of the plant. However, it is necessary to know in which pH levels these foods dissolve.

What is the Effect of 5-PH Level on Nutrients?
Since each nutrient will dissolve at different PH levels, it is necessary to know well at which PH levels the nutrients to be used in plants dissolve.

In order for the nutrients to dissolve sufficiently and to provide the necessary assistance to the plant, they must be dissolved at a PH level of 5.5 or 6.5.

6-What are the Points to Consider While Fertilizing in Hydroponic Agriculture?
You can use fertilizers produced for various systems in hydroponic farming.
You can get suggestions and help by informing the places that the system you use receives fertilizer.
As you gain experience in the following processes, you can obtain your own fertilizer mixtures. Here are some things to consider when making your own mixes:

1. Fertilizers prepared for hydroponic productions are always the better option.

2. The plant needs different elements according to its growing stages. You can prepare different mixtures for each stage of the plant. Make sure that the PH degree of these mixtures you will prepare is between 5.5 and 6.

3. The temperature of the mixtures is very important. Hot mixtures harm plants.

4. The reservoir water and nutrient should be changed regularly.

Why Are Plant Lights Important?
You may need an extra light source for every production you will make indoors. Since it will be a closed area, your plants will not see sunlight.

Importance of Light for Plants;

Plants need light, water, oxygen and nutrients to survive. Plants need sunlight to thrive and continue production. Plants retain sunlight in their chlorophyll.

There are many types of lights. We can collect these light types under 3 main headings.

These lights are used as supporting lights when the sunlight is not enough. Among these lights, fluorescent lamps are used in quite a variety of areas in terms of their low cost and providing sufficient amount of light. However, it is not preferred much in greenhouse-style farming areas.

The light intensity of HIDs is quite high. They can emit cold and warm light.

The costs of LEDs are slightly higher than others. However, it can be used as a conceivable investment tool in the long run.

8-What are the Plants Grown in the Hydroponic System?
Almost all kinds of plants are grown in this system.

Vegetable types (cabbage, spinach, lettuce and tomato), herbs (mint, basil, thyme) fruits (strawberries and peppers) can be grown in the hydroponic system.

As every plant can grow in the hydroponic system, there are also plants that are not suitable for this system. Any plant can be grown in the hydroponic system, but the cost may increase as the plants that are difficult to grow are more difficult to maintain.

For example, plants with deep roots such as potatoes, radishes and carrots need deeper areas. Since melon, corn and watermelon plants are quite large plants, large areas are needed. For this reason, growing such plants in a hydroponic environment is a very difficult and costly process.